UV light for checking gold

 

I was greatly surprised when a customer phoned to ask for a UV light for checking gold.

You cannot test gold with a UV light.

That’s not at all what he meant.

He’d just read about a scheme by the BJA (British Jewellers Association) which they call their “Gold Standard”, a code of practice for buyers of gold, and this includes:

“We will take every reasonable precaution to ensure the property being purchased is not stolen. We will use a UV light to check for forensic property marking”.

This would explain why we sold six UV lights in one afternoon.

 

UV torch (ultra violet light), house training (toilet-training) cats and dogs, detecting forged antiques

A UV torch can reveal traces of dog’s (and cat’s) wee, which are normally invisible to the human eye, good for training, as shown on Friday’s Duck Quacks Don’t Echo – see this in action, play the video. This is just one of the strange effects of UV light (known in the U.S.A. as ‘black light’). The following is an extract, see the full article and find out which UV torches are best.

 

The forensic services use a UV torch at scenes of crime, not only does urine fluoresce (glow) but so too do spots of blood.  There is UV light in ordinary daylight but the human eye can’t see it (which is why we need to use a UV torch) – however, reindeer in the Arctic can. To a reindeer, urine and lichens appear black against the ice and snow as they absorb UV light, urine is bad (indicates nearby predators), lichens are good (reindeers eat them). A human wanting to identify lichen must shade it from daylight, shine a UV torch on it, and see if it fluoresces white, bluish or orange.

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13529152

Reindeer foraging in the Artic Islands from the BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13529152

If porcelain has been repaired, the missing part will have been ‘rebuilt’ or the crack glued, and then carefully repainted so that the colour matches. But the colour will only match perfectly in white light (e.g. daylight), under UV light the new paint shows up a totally different shade. This applies to many decorative items, watch dials, dolls heads, even faint signatures on letters and modern touch-up paint on old paintings. You have probably noticed the same effect when looking at a car parked under a yellow street light, new paint on the car can show up quite a different shade, whereas in daylight it matches perfectly.

 

Other examples in the world of antiques and art: oil paintings, art on paper, marble, jade and ivory, all show characteristic patterns under UV light (see full article for details).

 

 

There is starch in ordinary paper that makes it glow a vivid blue when lit with ultra violet light, but banknotes (which are made of a linen-type material and not paper) merely look ‘slightly blue’, hence these lights are used as ‘forged banknote detectors’. Many banknotes (and cheques too) are printed with ‘secret’ marks, using UV-ink, which can only be seen under UV light.

 

Additives in soap powders glow under ultra violet light, they are added for that very reason: UV light in daylight makes your white washing glow blue-white, so that the advertisers can say that their powder ‘washes whiter than white’.

 

Quinine is an ingredient of some drinks (e.g. tonic water), it gives them a distinctive bitter taste. And quinine glows under UV light. So the next time you are in a dimly-lit bar drinking a gin and tonic, shine your UV torch on it and see it glow.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tonic_water_uv.jpg

Author: Splarka from en:wp as viewed on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tonic_water_uv.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most dramatic of all is Vaseline Glass (Uranium Glass) which is so sensitive to UV light that it glows brilliantly.

 

Uranium glows vivid green under UV light. Picture by JJ Harrison (jjharrison89@facebook.com)

Extracting gold from seawater

Gold from seawater – yes, it’s true!

I did know that there is a lot of gold in the sea. It was in The Gold & Silver Buyer’s Handbook by Raffi Katz, and that’s a good reliable source of information about gold. But it’s nice to see confirmation of this in an article, by Paul Collins, in this week’s NEW SCIENTIST magazine.

 

Altogether (in the world) there is an absolutely huge amount of gold in the seas. But the concentration is very low. In the 1870s attempts to extract the gold were based on an estimate of 1 grain (about 0.06g) of gold per tonne of seawater. Current estimates put this at a tiny fraction of that – in effect, a few pence-worth of gold per 1000Kg of seawater.

Back in the nineteenth century, there were a few attempts to commercialise the process.

The first big project was by Prescott Jernegan in 1897. He mixed seawater-sludge with mercury. This is a dangerous process used today by individuals in Africa today (but with gold-bearing ore not seawater); Jernegan used an electrical process, it was all highly secret.  The secret was revealed many years later – his accomplice was adding gold to the seawater, then demonstrating how spectacularly it could be recovered.

So what was the point of secretly adding gold then recovering it? The process attracted investors. Then Prescott skipped town with $300,000.00 of the investors’ money – and that was a lot of money in 1897.

A more serious attempt (in 1904) involved a proven technology: dissolving the gold in cyanide. But it turned out not to be commercially viable. And, again, (this time in 1923) a German research project concluded that gold-from-seawater was not viable.

Technology moves forward apace. There is a type of seaweed and there are certain bacteria which ‘take up’ heavy metals (including gold).  Experiments are now at the stage of moving from the laboratory to the sea. It is now commercially viable.

No doubt this news item will hit the popular press in a few days and will reverberate around the jewellery and antiques trades totally mis-reported.

The researchers do not expect to recover enough gold to melt into bars, they aim to recover gold nano-particles for scientific applications in opto-electronics and medical imaging.

So it is true that gold can be recovered from seawater. But not in any quantity that will make a difference to the world price of gold.

More information about gold.

 

Everything you need to know about jewellery, silver, gemstones and diamonds – best books

There are some really good books, this Christmas, about gold and silver, buying and selling, diamonds and gemstones, making and repairing jewellery.

The much-acclaimed book, The Gold & Silver Buyer’s Handbook, £12.50 (click on the reviews tab) summarises several years of experience in buying and selling, in just 184 pages, and includes everything you need to know about testing, weighing and calculating prices. This is also available as an Kindle download, £7.20.

If you are an antiques dealer and need to date items, the standard British Hallmark Book, £6.50 will enable you to date items made from 1300 onwards.  Although this book is used mostly by silver dealers, the date letters are the same for silver and for gold.  Long ago, silversmiths who made electroplated (not solid silver) items registered their marks at the Sheffield Assay Office and a record of these marks (and their dates) can be found in the book of plate marks (its full name is The Identification of Sheffield Electroplated Wares).

A problem with dating old silver items is: supposing the item has a foreign mark?  The Tardy Book, £20.00, of International Silver Marks covers the entire world and has an ingenious index in picture-order, so that you can find the mark without having to know which country to look up.

There is a discount if you buy two of the marks books together, £22.50.

Another large part of the jewellery trade concerns diamonds and gemstones.

People often ask if I have a book they can use to identify gemstones using a very simple method. The customer would have an actual stone in front of them (probably mounted in jewellery) and they would find a picture in the book, and from the picture they will be able to identify the gemstone.  Alas, there is no such book.  An analogy would be a book listing all liquids, you put some unknown liquid into a glass then you looked up the book to find a liquid of the same colour and, hey presto, you’ve identified the liquid!  Similarly, there is no book of colour pictures from which you can identify gemstones.

HOWEVER, there are two good books that WILL help you. The closest I have to a picture book is Gemstones, £15.00. This is in a traditional format: an introduction to gemmology, then a section for each gemstone, lots of information, many pictures. The other book is more serious, a ‘must’ for anyone who really wants to learn about gemstones, and its format is different: Gem Identification Made Easy, £23.50, works its way through each of a dozen gem testers (mostly optical testers used by gemmologists and tells you which stones each tester will identify.

There is a discount if you buy both gem books together.

Finally, making and repairing jewellery.

Practical Jewellery Repair, £7.50, gives a good basic guide to repairing, using hand tools and simple equipment. Although there is a section on ‘how to set up a workshop’ the emphasis is on what the ordinary person can make with a makeshift workbench and  simple tools.   Along the same lines, Jewellery Making for Profit, £7.50, shows how to make jewellery at home, without the need for a fully-fitted professional  workshop, including techniques to ‘batch-manufacture’ components to speed up production…and all with simple hand tools.

There is a discount if you buy both jewellery books together., £10.00. There are also bulk prices for those buying for colleges / courses in jewellery.

Finally, a quite remarkable and beautiful book about (obscure as this may seem!):

Pocket Fruit Knives, £19.50, is a stunningly-produced book covering the history of fruit knives from the 1600s to the 1940s. For the dealer, a knowledge of such a mundane subject will enable him to pick out true rarities when they turn up at auctions or boot sales. For others, this is a coffee table book that will fascinate all who pick it up.

See all our jewellery books….see jewellery tools.

 

 

Gold testing acids, do they have a shelf life?

Every now and again something occurs to a customer, and they phone to ask: the acids used for testing precious metals (including gold) – do they go off?

Well, actually – yes.

All acid has a shelf life (it varies depending on which particular acid) and this can be anywhere from six months to two years.

The good news is that if you buy QUICKTEST or TROYTEST acids, there is a batch number printed on each bottle, and this number is the date (month and year) of manufacture. The batch number is also traceable, so we can look up the lab report for that particular batch.

The batch number is in the format month-year.

e.g. 12-13 means it was bottled in December 2013
e.g. 12-13-b means it was the second batch bottled in December 2013

It is not a use-by date, it is the date the bottle was filled.

We fill the bottles from giant flasks.  Then, when a flask is empty, we mix more chemicals and make up a fresh flask.  Some flasks get used up in a couple of weeks, some last two or three of months.

The white (9ct) fluid, the blue (14-24ct) fluid and the Amber (silver) fluid have a shelf life of 1 to 2 years, but to be on the safe side it’s best to change them after a year. We mix a fresh flask two or three times per month, so any bottle you buy from us will be of recent production.

Green (Platinum) and Clear (8ct and high-zinc) last up to a year but we strongly recommend that they are changed after six months. This is because we don’t sell as many of these, we mix a fresh flask every 2 to 3 months.

Acids must be protected from prolonged exposure to air and daylight, so if the caps are not tightened and / or they are left out of the box in the light, the shelf life will be considerably reduced.

Obviously, if you are using them a lot, you will use up the bottle long before it ever goes off and none of this will be relevant.

You can buy gold testing kits and refill bottles directly from Quicktest, or from most jewellery equipment wholesalers in London’s Hatton Garden or Birmingham’s Jewellery Quarter.  Ask for a QUICKTEST or TROYTEST tester.

Which watch key will fit an antique watch? Which clock winder will fit an antique clock?

I received an interesting letter from a horologist, about clock and watch winders (watch keys, clock keys) and the various systems of numbering them.

There are two systems of numbering keys: European and English.  The European system now seems to be accepted, and that is the numbering system we use.  However, if you already have a key, and that key has a Key Number, and you want another one just like it – then you won’t know if the number is “European” or “English”.

The solution is to select a key by its size in millimetres.  Measure any edge of the winding square (“peg”) in the clock or watch (in millimetres) and look up my conversion charts.

There’s a more comprehensive page of conversion charts which includes ring and finger sizes from around the world (British, French, German, Swiss, Japanese, American), and weights, including ounces, Troy ounces, grains and pennyweight.

 

Testing gold using electronic testers

This is my article about electronic gold testers, as published in this issue (Nov-Dec 2013) of Antiques Info magazine (available in Smiths).

You can see a longer version of this article on our website. 

 

In the last issue, I told you about testing gold (and silver and platinum) with acid: the acid test, the ultimate proof.

 

There are also a great many electronic testers on the market, but are they as accurate as the traditional acid test? I shall tell you the answer at the end of this article.

 

Firstly, be very cautious when you read the sales hype and when you look at product photographs. The photographs show a ‘pen probe’ suggesting that you simply touch the probe onto the metal and it gives a reading.  Not so!   I shall explain.

 

That probe, it’s not just a probe. It connects to a metal plate and a box of electronics (though the electronics can be built into the probe or the plate); the test-item must be filed (there is no electronic tester that can test through plating!); a contact fluid is used to complete the electrical circuit; the reading is displayed on a meter.

 

The simplest electronic testers  (e.g. the Mizar brand) cost from  £100.00 (to test 9ct o 18ct) to £150.00 (to tests 9ct to 24ct). The advantage of these is that they are ‘automatic’, you don’t have to calibrate them (check them against a known sample). The disadvantage is that because you can’t calibrate them, they are not always accurate. Another disadvantage is that they use a contact solution made of acid.  The advantage is the low price.

 

Moving up-market, the Auracle brand costs from £300.00 to £500.00 and tests from 8ct to 24ct, plus platinum. The contact fluid is a salt solution.  Their top model connects to a mobile phone,  you still need the metal plate and box of electronics, but it’s smaller than the standard model because the meter and buttons become part of your phone.  The phone app is, as you would expect, free. But you still have to lay out £500.00 for the tester.

 

All of the above are sold by us (QUICKTEST) and because this is our specialist subject we have carried out many thousands of tests, and published test-results and reviews on www.quicktest.co.uk.

 

Many people turn pale and quiver when it is suggested that they spend between £100.00 and £500.00 on an electronic gold tester, they point out that chemical testers (which we manufacture) start at £40.00. Please allow me to put this into perspective by describing two more electronic testers, which we do not sell.

 

XRF (X-ray Fluorescence) displays the item’s chemical composition on a screen.  So whereas the simple electronic testers described above might tell you, “It’s about 9ct, maybe a bit more”, an XRF tester might display, “38.1% gold, 54.5% copper, 4.2% silver, 3.1% zinc”.

 

Scrap dealers and antiques dealers tend to go for basic XRF models, they look like an oversized barcode scanner and you can now get them for as little as £12,000.00.  The models used in laboratories are the size of a microwave oven, from £30,000.00 to £50,000.00 (one buyer at a laboratory assured me that you have to spend £50,000.00 to get a decent one).

 

So now for the big questions: how do the various testers compare?

 

As regards safety, the cheapest (£100.00 to £200.00) use an acid contact solution, it is acide,  treat it with care;  the £300.00 to £500.00 testers use a harmless salt solution.  XRF testers use x-rays, the ‘scanner’ type have no safety featuresl, you have to remember to keep your fingers away from the emitter as you pull the trigger or you will blast them with dangerous x-rays.

 

As regards maintenance costs, replacing the contact fluid (or probe) of a basic testers costs  £15.00 to £30.00 (enough for hundreds of tests).  The tube of an XRF tester lasts three to five years costs about £6,500.00 to replace.

 

As regards accuracy, the cheapest (up to £200.00) tend to have a light for each ‘standard’ carat, e.g. 9ct / 14ct / 18ct. You will never know if the machine is rounding a reading up or down – not very accurate. The better makes (e.g. the Auracle) have a row of 30 lights so it’s easier to judge just where, between ‘standard’ carats, the reading falls; the top Auracle model) has an LCD display to show you the exact carat.

 

Finally, how easy is it to buy these testers? We manufacture the chemical testers and import the Auracle electronic tester, see www.quicktest.co.uk.

Methods of testing gold at the Assay Office by Raffi Katz

I visited the Birmingham Assay office for a training course on testing gold (touch acid testing) and saw how the Assay Office test gold, silver and platinum.

 

They started by explaining that to test the fineness (carat) of precious metals for the purpose of hallmarking, the Birmingham Assay Office uses XRF Testing and cupellation (more about this below). Both of these methods are very accurate. Before the introduction of XRF testing, they used Touch Acid testing (not as accurate). Nowadays the Assay Office use Touch Acid testing only occasionally, but it is the main method used in retail situations.

 

They then introduced the ‘industry standard’ tester: the Troytest 4 (which is manufactured by us, Quicktest).

 

After half an hour of theory we had a practical session, testing dozens of samples. This was interesting. When we manufacture the testing sets here at Quicktest, we check the acids against a dozen samples. On the course, I had the opportunity to test the acids against 45 samples, and got to see every slight variation in the reactions.

 

The people running the course spend their working lives testing gold (and other precious metals); the Birmingham Assay Office hallmarks between five and six million items per year, most of which are tested – they are THE foremost experts in testing. And so I was curious to know if they used any techniques I had not come across. They did! And so here are some ‘advanced’ instructions, and also a list of other testing methods that the Birmingham Assay Office will use to test your gold.

 

MY METHOD: I give away a fine (‘needle’) file with each set (to remove any surface plating), you can file thoroughly over a very small area, which causes the minimum of damage.

ASSAY OFFICE METHOD: they take samples of gold for analysis with a ‘scraper’ – a three-pointed steel tool with very sharp edges. Because they are scraping a relatively large area (unlike using a fine needle file) there is no resulting ‘notch’, it’s much more ‘gentle’, in skilled hands you can hardly see that the item has been ‘scratched’. The downside is that it takes practice to use, it’s not as easy a needle file. However, I’m impressed and I now stock scrapers.

 

I also learnt of other methods of testing / assaying precious metals:

 

ICP (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry): a tiny sample is removed, weighed and dissolved into the appropriate solution. The solution is then sprayed through an ultra-hot flame where until it is destroyed in a burst of plasma and the resulting spectrum is analysed. This is the most accurate method of analysing platinum group metal alloys to discover their exact chemical composition.

 

Fire Assay Testing: the standard (and very accurate) method of assaying gold alloys. A small gold sample is weighed, then melted and the pure gold extracted. Then it’s weighed again and the carat (percentage of pure gold) is calculated. Each test takes two and a half hours.

 

The assay office will analyse metals using ICP or Fire Assay, but if you want your own ICP equipment it will cost in the high tens of thousands of pounds. As you see from the pictures, these are not ‘testing machines’, they are laboratories.

 

Touchstone testing. This is a variation of acid testing. Streaks of gold of known carat are rubbed across a special stone (touchstone), acid is placed across all the streaks at once, the rate at which they dissolve indicates the carat. Interestingly, the Birmingham Assay Office have long-since discontinued this method of testing in favour of XRF.

 

This is a short version of an illustrated article by Raffi Katz that can be found at http://www.quicktest.co.uk/Assayofficegoldtesting.htm

 

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